Section 6

Useful information on EDMFs

Codes of ethics

Association of Internet Researchers. Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee (Version 2.0). 2012.

Australian Community Managers. Code of Ethics. Sydney, 2017.

Australian Council for International Development. Code of Conduct. Canberra, 2017.

Cox, S. Drew, S. Guillemin, M. Howell, C. Warr, D. and Waycott, J. Guidelines for Ethical Visual Research Methods. The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 2014.

Dochas. Code of Conduct on Images and Messages. Dublin, 2006.

Fundraising Institute of Australia. Fundraising Institute of Australia Code. 2018.

Photovoice. Statement of Ethical Practice.

StoryCentre. Ethical Practice.

Best-practice toolkits

Crompton, Tom and Netta Weinstein. Common Cause Communication: A toolkit for charitiesCommon Cause Foundation, London, 2015.

Dochas. The illustrative guide to the Dochas Code of Conduct on images and messaging. Dublin, 2014.

Shenker-Osorio, Anat & Centre for Community Change. Messaging this Moment: A handbook for progressive communicators. Washington, DC, 2017.

Victoria Law Foundation. When I tell my story, I’m in charge: Ethical and effective storytelling in advocacy. Melbourne, 2013.

Using images ethically

Aufderheide, Pat, Peter Jaszi and Mridu Chandra. Honest Truths: Documentary Filmmakers on Ethical Challenges in Their WorkCentre for Media and Social Impact, Washington, DC, 2009.

Hardy, Pip. “First do no harm: developing an ethical process of consent and release for digital storytelling in healthcare”Seminar.net - International journal of media, technology and lifelong learning Vol. 11, Issue 3 (2015).

Wang, Caroline C. “Photovoice Ethics: Perspectives from Flint Photovoice”. Health Education & Behavior, Vol. 28 (5): 560-572 (October 2001).

Wang, Caroline C. “Youth Participation in Photovoice as a Strategy for Community Change.” Journal of Community Practice (The Haworth Press, Inc.) Vol. 14, No. 1/2, 2006, pp. 147-161.

Warrington, Siobhan and Jess Crombie. The People in the PicturesSave the Children United Kingdom, London, 2017.

Wehbi, Samantha and Deane Taylor. “Photographs speak louder than words: the language of international development images.” Community Development Journal 48, no. 4 (2013): 525-539.

Aid and development

Common Cause. No cause is an island: How people are influenced by values regardless of the cause. Common Cause Foundation, London, 2014.

Darnton, Andrew and Martin Kirk. Finding Frames: New ways to engage the UK public in global poverty. Bond for International Development, London, 2011.

Moreton, Emily. Images in online fundraising and marketing: A critical examination of ACFID Members’ practice and perspectives. Australian Council for International Development, Canberra, 2018.

Dush, Lisa. “The ethical complexities of sponsored digital storytelling initiatives”. International Journal of Cultural Studies 16(6): 627-640 (2012).

Muller, Sachini and Terence Wood. “Aid online: an analysis of how Australian aid NGOs use the internet”. ANU Development Centre Discussion Paper No. 47. ANU Development Policy Centre, Canberra, 2016.

Orgad, Shani. “Visualizers of solidarity: organizational politics in humanitarian and international development NGOs.” Visual Communication 12, no. 3 (2013): 295-314.

Seu, I.B. & Orgad, S. Mediated Humanitarian Knowledge: Audiences’ reactions and moral actions. Final Report. University of London, London, 2014.

ACFID and DFAT

Australian Council for International Development, Code of Conduct & Quality Assurance Framework (2017)

Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Child Protection Guidance Note: Use of Images and Social Media (2017)

Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Child Protection Policy (2017)

Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Consent for use of images/videos (date unknown)

Codes of ethics for research

British Sociological Association. Statement of Ethical Practice. London, 2017.

Ivy, Andrew and Leo Alexander. The Nuremburg Code. United States Counsel for War Crimes, 1947.

National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, The. The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1979.

National Health and Medical Research Council, The; The Australian Research Council and Universities Australia. National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. 2007 (updated 2018).

World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjectsHelsinki, 1964. (Last updated: Brazil, 2013.)

Relevant United Nations conventions and declarations

United Nations, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979)

Article 2 – Women have the right to not be discriminated against on the basis of their sex.

Article 5 – Sex-role stereotyping and prejudice is harmful to women and girls.

Article 7 – Women have the right to participate in political and public life.

Article 13 – Women have equal rights to participate in recreational activities, sports and all aspects of cultural life.

 

United Nations, Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Article 2 – All children are covered by this convention.

Article 3 – The best interests of the child are paramount.

Article 12 – Children have the right to voice their views.

Article 13 – Children have the right to freedom of expression.

Article 16 – Children have the right to privacy.

Article 17 – Children have the right to access mass media.

Article 30 – Indigenous children have the right to enjoy their culture, religion and language.

Article 36 – Children should be protected from any activity that takes advantage of them or could harm their welfare and development.

 

United Nations, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2007)

Article 6 – Countries must take all appropriate measures to ensure that women with disability are able to fully enjoy the rights and freedoms set out in the Convention.

Article 7 – The best interests of the child must be a primary consideration in all actions concerning children with disability.

Article 8 – Countries must raise awareness of the rights, capabilities and contributions of people with disability.

Article 21 – People with disability have the right to express themselves, including the freedom to give and receive information and ideas through all forms of communication, including through accessible formats and technologies, sign languages, Braille, augmentative and alternative communication, mass media and all other accessible means of communication.

Article 30 – People with disability have the right to take part in cultural life on an equal basis with others, including access to cultural materials, performances and services, and to recreational, leisure and sporting activities.

 

United Nations, Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous People (2007)

Article 3 – Indigenous people have the right to self-determination.

Article 8 – Indigenous people have the right to preserve their culture. They should not be forced to assimilate to the culture of colonisers or subjected to racial discrimination.

Article 11 – Indigenous people have the right to practise their culture, including visual and performing arts and literature.

Article 15 – Indigenous people have the right to dignity, respect and diversity of culture.

Article 16 – Indigenous people have the right to expression in the media, including in their own languages.

Article 18 – Indigenous peoples have the right to participate in decision-making through representatives chosen by them.

 

United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

Article I – All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

Article 2 – Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Article 3 – Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 5 – No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 12 – No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with their privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon their honour and reputation.

Article 19 – Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.

Article 27 – Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community. Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which they are the author.